Sale Access Publishing [Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude (English) Paperback] by G. Subbarao , P N Roy Choudhary

Access Publishing [Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude (English) Paperback] by G. Subbarao , P N Roy Choudhary

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Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude was the first book on this topic when it was first published in 2013.Now into its third, revised edition, this trendsetting book is a popular and widely acclaimed book. The eminent authors Shri Subba Rao and Shri Roy Chowdhury ( both former IAS officers) have revised this edition based on constructive feedback and suggestions.


Key revision features in this edition

  • A new chapter titled `Challenges to Ethics and Moral Accountability' introduced
  • The chapter on `Case Studies' thoroughly overhauled with all-new Case Studies
  • Case Studies within chapters restructured as per latest UPSC question paper pattern


Features at a glance

  • 25 Chapters covering the entire range of issues related to ethics, integrity and aptitude
  • Text interspersed with Case Studies wherever relevant
  • Summary at the end of each chapter
  • Questions for Self Assessment at the end of each chapter
  • Glossary of terms.



About the Author

G Subba Rao is a retired IAS officer and currently is Chairman, Gujarat State Police Complaints Authority. He holds an MA in Economics from Andhra University, MA In Rural Development from University of East Anglia, United Kingdom.

P N Roychowdhury is a retired IAS officer and is presently, Advisor, Strategic Management with the Adani group. He has a Masters in Applied Mathematics from Calcutta University and an M Sc in Finance from Strathclyde University, Glasgow and MBA from the University of Rochester, New York.

Table of Contents

Preface to the Third Edition

  • Preface to the Second Edition
  • 1. Introduction To Ethics
  • Definitions of Ethics
  • Two Aspects of Morals
  • Moral Judgements based on Content
  • Moral Judgements based on Form or Attitude: the Right and the Good
  • Common Concepts used in Explaining Human Actions
  • Appetites and Impulses
  • Good
  • Wish
  • Purpose, Intention and Motive
  • Character In Ethics
  • Model of Moral Decision Making
  • Ethical Ideals in Life
  • Ethics based on Theory of Evolution
  • Exposition of Ethics
  • An Analytical and Historical Perspective
  • Milestones in the Development of Ethical Thought
  • Contents of the Boo
  • 2. Challenges To Ethics And Moral Accountability
  • Introduction
  • Sceptical doctrines
  • Contents
  • ii Contents
  • Psychological egoism
  • Criticisms of psychological egoism
  • Ethical egoism
  • Weaknesses of ethical egoism
  • Moral relativism and moral objectivism
  • Moral subjectivism
  • Refutations of moral subjectivism
  • Cultural relativism
  • Problems with cultural relativism
  • Determinism and human free will
  • Free actions
  • Determinants of Morality
  • Object of Action
  • Circumstances of Action
  • Purpose of Action
  • Responsibility of Moral Agents
  • Consequences of Human Actions
  • Acts with Double Effects
  • Criticisms of the Doctrine of Double Effect
  • Summary
  • Questions for self assessment
  • 3. Western Moral Thinkers
  • Socrates
  • Historical Background
  • Socrates As the First Systematic Moral Thinker
  • Moral Concerns of Socrates
  • Plato
  • Introduction
  • Plato’s Metaphysics
  • Idea of Good
  • Theory of Virtue
  • Plato’s Republic
  • Criticism of Platonic Ideas
  • Aristotle
  • Biographical Sketch
  • Approach
  • Contents iii
  • His Concept of Happiness
  • His Concept of Virtues
  • Aristotle’s Magnanimous Individual
  • His Concept of Justice
  • His Concept of Freedom of Will
  • Politics and State According to Aristotle
  • Criticism of Aristotle’s Views
  • Post Aristotelian Philosophers
  • A Background
  • Their Approach
  • Epicureanism
  • Obstacles to Happiness
  • Happiness
  • Cultivating Serenity
  • Evaluation of Epicureanism
  • Stoicism
  • Founders
  • Philosophical Underpinnings
  • Reason as a Stoic Ethic
  • Stoics and Emotions
  • Utilitarianism
  • Introduction
  • Main Tenets
  • Utilitarianism, Egoism and Altruism
  • Concept of Happiness
  • Measuring Happiness
  • Untenable Results of Utilitarianism
  • Act Utilitarianism and Rule Utilitarianism
  • Teleological and Deontological Moral Theories
  • Utilitarianism as Consequentialism
  • Forecasting Consequences of Decisions
  • Moral Responsibility
  • Egalitarian Justice
  • Political Rights
  • Kantianism
  • Duty as Moral Criterion or Standard
  • Categorical Imperative
  • iv Contents
  • Categorical Imperative and Rule Utilitarianism
  • Second Formulation of Categorical Imperative
  • Austere Morality of Kant
  • Criticism of Kant’s Theories
  • Virtue ethics
  • Virtues and vices
  • Virtue Ethics and Rule-based Ethics
  • Natural law ethics
  • Other Strands
  • Moral Thinkers of the Twentieth Century
  • Introduction
  • G. E. Moore
  • Sir David Ross
  • A.J. Ayer
  • C.L. Stevenson
  • R.M. Hare
  • John Rawls
  • Summary
  • Practice Questions
  • 4. Ethical Ideas in Indian Philosophical Tradition
  • Hinduism
  • Four Principal Moral Ends
  • Varnashrama Dharma
  • Bhagavat Gita
  • Main Message
  • Paths to Salvation
  • Virtues
  • Action without Craving
  • Positive and negative emotions
  • Comparison with Western Moral Ideals
  • Other Aspects of Gita’s Moral Message
  • Moral Criteria and Concepts
  • Law of Karma
  • Manu’s Ideas
  • Mahabharata
  • Samyama
  • Contents v
  • Jainism
  • Ahimsa
  • Path to Salvation
  • Five Moral Principles
  • Pride
  • Buddhism
  • Life of Buddha
  • Conceptual framework of Buddhist thought
  • Truth of Dukkha
  • Origin of Dukkha
  • Cessation of Dukkha
  • Path Leading to the Cessation of Dukkha
  • Prescriptions for Family and Society
  • Non-Violence and Peace
  • Middle Course
  • Altruism
  • Gandhian Ethics
  • Faith in God
  • Ethical Conduct
  • Truth
  • Service to Society
  • Purity of Heart
  • Ends and Means
  • Human Nature
  • Ahimsa
  • Non-violent Non-cooperation
  • Qualities of a Satyagrahi
  • Gandhi’s Economic Ideas
  • Summary
  • Practice Questions
  • 5. Lessons From The Lives Of Great Indian Leaders,
  • Reformers And Administrators
  • Introduction and Approach Human Values
  • Vivekananda
  • Discovery of Real India
  • vi Contents
  • Awakening his Countrymen
  • His Spiritual Thoughts
  • His Contributions to India
  • His Contributions to Hinduism
  • Some Famous Sayings of Vivekananda
  • Ramakrishna Paramahamsa
  • Intense Spiritual Practices
  • Contributions of Sri Ramakrishna to World Culture
  • Other Contributions
  • Sri Aurobindo
  • The Patriot
  • A Divine Life
  • A Great Litterateur
  • Five Dreams
  • Raja Ram Mohan Roy
  • Religious Reforms
  • Social Reforms
  • Education
  • Journalism
  • Religious Catholicity
  • Dayananda Saraswati
  • Transformative Event
  • Spiritual Search
  • Basic Doctrine
  • Practical Reformer
  • Opposition to Obscurantism
  • Assessment
  • Narayana Guru
  • Education
  • Marriage
  • Spiritual Wanderings
  • Religious Mission
  • Opposition to Old Customs
  • Commandments
  • Tolerance and Catholicity
  • Sir Rabindranath Tagore
  • Nobel Prize
  • Poetic Vision of India
  • Contents vii
  • Social Reform
  • Modernism
  • Education
  • Communal Harmony
  • Poetic Genius
  • Kautilya
  • Political Governance
  • Economic Governance
  • Main Themes
  • Guru Ravidas
  • Saintly Ways
  • Religious Ideas
  • Guru Nanak
  • Biographical sketch
  • Teachings
  • Tiruvalluvar
  • On Love and family
  • On the Importance of Wealth
  • On Politics & Governance
  • On Moral Enforcement
  • Literary aspects
  • Summary
  • Practice Questions
  • 6. Sources of Ethical Guidance Laws, Rules,
  • Regulations and Conscience
  • Introduction
  • Ordinary Meaning of Law
  • Meaning of Law in Ethics
  • Rules and Regulations
  • Differences between Laws and Rules
  • Types of Law According to Aquinas
  • Natural Law
  • Parts of Natural Law
  • Civil Laws
  • Relevance of the Ideas of Aquinas
  • Constitutional Values
  • viii Contents
  • Conscience
  • Historical Evolution of Ideas on Conscience
  • Moral Sense
  • Moral Reason
  • Empirical Conception of Conscience
  • Aspects of Conscience
  • The Customary or Conventional Conscience
  • The Loyal Conscience
  • The Independent or Reflective Conscience
  • Moral Relativism
  • Moral Change
  • Summary
  • Practice Questions
  • 7. Ethical Qualities Through the Lenses of Sages and
  • Great Thinkers
  • Introduction
  • Kindness
  • Forgiveness
  • Self-Control and Good Temper (Anger)
  • Fortitude
  • Cowardice
  • Empathy
  • Altruism
  • Truthfulness
  • Keeping Promises
  • Honesty
  • Integrity
  • Avoiding Breach of Trust
  • Power and Morality
  • Prudence
  • Temperance
  • Humility
  • Golden Rule
  • Vices
  • List of Vices
  • Envy
  • Contents ix
  • Sloth
  • Avarice
  • Lust
  • 8. Ethical Reasoning And Moral Dilemmas
  • Introduction
  • Ethical Situations
  • Process of Moral Decision-Making
  • Method Based on Judicial Procedures: Outcome Justice
  • Process Justice
  • Ethical Dilemmas
  • Ethical Dilemmas: Prima Facie Principles
  • Ethical Dilemmas and Prima Facie Principles
  • Frame Work for Analyzing Ethical Dilemmas
  • Summary
  • Practice Questions
  • 9. Codes of Ethics and Codes of Conduct
  • Introduction
  • Codes of Ethics and Codes of Conduct
  • The Distinction between the Above
  • Codes and Laws
  • The Athenian Code
  • Professional Codes of Conduct
  • Professional Ethics
  • Introduction
  • Implementation and Regulation
  • Two Examples of Professional Codes
  • Professional Responsibility
  • Codes of Conduct for Civil Servants
  • General Principles and Approach
  • Seven Principles of Public life
  • Differences in Codes of Conduct
  • Specific Content of Codes of Conduct
  • Using the Best Judgement
  • Written Orders
  • Integrity and Devotion
  • Reporting Details of Properties and Transactions
  • x Contents
  • Bar on Influence Peddling
  • Avoiding Conflict of Interest
  • Financial Propriety
  • Political Neutrality
  • Observing Social Laws and Cultural Norms
  • Other Norms
  • Code of Ethics for Civil Servants
  • Public Service Bill
  • Summary
  • Practice Questions
  • 10. Individual Ethics Of Civil Servants
  • Introduction
  • Character and Personality
  • Personal Qualities
  • Scandals in Government and Corporate Sector
  • Virtue Ethics
  • Introduction
  • Emphasis on Efficiency and Hierarchy
  • Cardinal Virtues
  • Types of Virtues
  • Introduction
  • Recent Views on Ethics for Civil Servants
  • Goodness of Character
  • A summary
  • Need for Good Character
  • Civil Service Ethics in Different Schools of Thought
  • Hierarchical Model
  • New Public Administration
  • David K Hart’s views
  • John Rohr’s Views
  • Public Choice Theory
  • Another Approach on Moral Code
  • Criticism of Public Choice Theory
  • Communitarianism
  • Opposition to Individual Choice Theory
  • Ethical Responsibility
  • Contents xi
  • Ethical and Sensitive Conduct
  • Loyalty
  • Duty of Obedience
  • Duty of Efficiency
  • Transparency
  • Impartiality
  • Summary
  • Practice Questions
  • 11. Code of Conduct for Ministers
  • Introduction
  • Framework for Ethical Behaviour
  • Elements of Ethical Behaviour
  • Ethical Standards Prescribed by Nolan Committee
  • Code of Conduct for Ministers
  • SARC’s Views on Code of Ethics for Ministers
  • SARC Made the Following Recommendations on the Subject
  • Summary
  • Practice Questions
  • 12. Mechanisms for Fighting Corruption
  • Introduction
  • Defining Corruption
  • Widening the Definition of Corruption
  • Roots of Corruption
  • Causes of Corruption
  • Coercive and Collusive Corruption
  • Systemic Reforms for Curbing Corruption
  • Administrative Structure and Procedures for Curbing Corruption
  • Central Vigilance Commission
  • Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)
  • CTE Organization
  • Types of Vigilance
  • How Corruption Comes to Light
  • Summary
  • Practice Questions
  • xii Contents
  • 13. Fight Against Corruption Current Issues
  • Introduction
  • Issues regarding corruption
  • Delays in Departmental Proceedings
  • Disciplinary Proceedings
  • Speeding up Trials under the Prevention of Corruption Act
  • Liability of Corrupt Public Servants to Pay Damages
  • Confiscation of Properties Illegally Acquired by Corrupt Means
  • Prohibition of ‘Benami’ Transactions
  • Protection to Whistleblowers
  • Constitutional Protection to Civil Servants – Article 311
  • Arguments in Favour of Retaining Article 311
  • Arguments in Favour of Repealing Article 311
  • SARC’s Final Recommendation
  • Summary
  • Practice Questions
  • 14. Multi-pronged Approach to Reducing Corruption
  • Introduction
  • Approaches to Reducing Corruption
  • Citizens’ Initiatives and Civil Society
  • Horizontal and Vertical Accountability
  • False Claims Act
  • Social Audit
  • Building Societal Consensus
  • Systemic Reforms
  • Recent Measures
  • Increasing Competition
  • Streamlining Procedures
  • Using Information Technology
  • Promoting Transparency
  • Integrity Pacts
  • Reducing Discretion
  • Supervision
  • Ensuring Accessibility and Responsiveness
  • Monitoring Complaints
  • Accountability of Civil Servants
  • Corruption Risk Management
  • Contents xiii
  • Political Corruption
  • Recent Improvements
  • Improvement in Accuracy of Electoral Rolls
  • Disclosure of Antecedents of Candidates
  • Disqualification of Persons Convicted of Criminal Offence
  • Enforcement of the Code of Conduct
  • Reduction in Size of Council of Ministers
  • Reform of Political Funding
  • Indian Context
  • Tightening of Anti-defection Law
  • Disqualification
  • False Declarations
  • Publication of Accounts by Political Parties
  • Coalition and Ethics
  • Summary
  • Practice Questions
  • 15. Lokpal
  • Historical Background of lokpal
  • Recent Developments
  • Main Provisions of the Act
  • Composition
  • Manner of Appointment: Selection Committee
  • Search Committee
  • Lokpal’s Jurisdiction
  • Inquiry Wing and Prosecution Wing
  • Procedure for Complaint Handling
  • No Prior Sanctions
  • Controversial Issues
  • Inclusion of Prime Minister in Lokpal’s Purview
  • Conduct of MPs inside Parliament
  • Inclusion of Group C and D Employees in Lokpal’s Purview
  • Inclusion of Judiciary in Lokpal’s Jurisdiction
  • Inclusion of Lokayuktas in the Law
  • Other Important Provisions
  • Conclusion
  • Summary
  • Practice Questions
  • xiv Contents
  • 16. The Right to Information Act
  • Background
  • RTI Act
  • Preamble
  • Main Provisions
  • Key Concepts
  • RTI’s Main Strategy
  • Definition of Public Authority under RTI Act
  • Central Information Commission (CIC)
  • Machinery of RTI
  • Information Exempted from Disclosure
  • Complaints under RTI Act
  • Penalties
  • Access
  • Responsibilities of Public Authorities
  • Public Awareness and Educational Programmes
  • Landmark Judgments by CIC
  • The Official Secrets Act
  • RTI Victims
  • Protection for Whistleblowers
  • Working of RTI Act
  • Overview of the Impact
  • Summary
  • Practice Questions
  • 17. Citizen’s Charter
  • Introduction
  • The Indian Scenario
  • Vision and Mission Statements
  • Mission Statement
  • Identification of Services
  • Identification of Levels
  • Identification of Client Groups/Stakeholders/Users
  • Specification of Time-Frames for Each Service
  • Specification of Time-Frames at Each Level
  • Specification of Service Quality Standards
  • Specification of Service Delivery Standards
  • Contents xv
  • Providing Information about the Public Grievance Redressal Procedures
  • Providing Information about the Public Grievance Redressal Mechanisms
  • Information about the Time-frame for the Public Grievance Redressal
  • Aspects of a Citizen’s Charter
  • Rationale
  • Steps in formulation
  • Model Guidelines
  • General Structure
  • Do’s and Don’ts for Implementing the Charters
  • Features of a Good Charter
  • Citizen’s Expectations
  • A Model Format for Citizen’s Charter
  • Let Us Join Hands in Making this Charter A Success!
  • Working of Citizen’s Charters
  • Solutions
  • Bill on the Right of Citizens for Time Bound Delivery of Goods and
  • Services and Redressal of Their Grievances
  • Summary
  • Practice Questions
  • 18. Utilisation of Public Funds
  • Introduction Budget
  • Fund Utilisation
  • Evaluating Efficiency
  • Fund Utilisation in Social Sector
  • Constraints on Fund Utilisation
  • Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS)
  • Approvals, Cost Norms and Staff
  • Transfer of Funds
  • Monitoring Fund Utilisation
  • Problems of Fund Releases and Utilisation
  • Outputs and Outcomes
  • Audit of Expenditure
  • Role of CAG
  • Nature of Audit
  • Regularity Audit (Compliance)
  • Propriety Audit
  • xvi Contents
  • Performance Audit
  • Three E’s of Performance Audit
  • Certification of Finance and Appropriation Accounts
  • Parliamentary Control on Expenditure
  • Public Accounts Committee (PAC)
  • Estimates Committee
  • Committee on Public Undertakings
  • Canons of Financial Propriety
  • Conclusion
  • Summary
  • Practice Questions
  • 19. Corporate Governance
  • Introduction
  • Structure and Processes of Companies
  • Corporate Governance
  • Cadbury Committee
  • Role of Auditors
  • Dealing with the Rights and Responsibilities of Shareholders
  • Risk Management
  • Evolution of Corporate Governance in India
  • Provisions Contained in the Companies Act
  • 1. National Financial Reporting Authority
  • 2. Audits and Auditors
  • 3. Directors
  • 4. Committees of the Board of Directors
  • 5. Nomination and Remuneration Committee, Stakeholders Relationship Committee
  • 6. Related Party Transactions
  • 7. Secretarial Audit
  • 8. Class Action
  • 9. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
  • UNGC: A Modern Cornerstone of Corporate Governance
  • Human Rights
  • Labour
  • Environment
  • Anti-Corruption
  • Course of Action
  • Contents xvii
  • Summary
  • Practice Questions
  • 20. Attitudes
  • Attitudes
  • Definition and Elaboration
  • Structure
  • Functions
  • Learning Theory of Attitude Change
  • Classical Conditioning
  • Operant Conditioning
  • Observational Learning
  • Theory of Persuasion
  • Audience Characteristics
  • Source Characteristics
  • Cognitive Routes
  • Attitudes, Beliefs and Actions
  • Cognitive Consistency
  • Cognitive Dissonance Theory
  • General Attitudes, Attitudes towards Behaviour
  • Broad Behaviour, Single Actions
  • Two Crucial Studies
  • Explaining Inconsistency
  • Two Kinds of Inconsistency
  • Moderating Factors
  • Domain of Interest and Set of Behaviours
  • The Principle of Compatibility
  • The MODE (Motivation and Opportunity as Determinants) Model
  • Two Types of Individuals, Two Modes of Activation
  • Intention and Behaviour
  • Models of Reasoned Action
  • Stereotyping and Prejudice
  • Summary
  • Practice Questions
  • 21. Political Attitudes
  • Introduction
  • Hierarchical Structure of Political Attitudes
  • xviii Contents
  • Hierarchical Model
  • Ideology
  • Marxist View
  • Explanation of Individual Differences
  • Perspectives of Social Psychology
  • The Big Five Dispositional Traits
  • The Big Five Psychological Dispositions and Political Attitudes
  • Aggregate Predictions: Personality and Overall Economic and Social Ideology
  • Ideological Dimensions
  • Eysenck’s Model
  • Measures of Ideology
  • Left-right Ideological Dimension
  • Multidimensional Models
  • Grid-group Model
  • Marriage of Information and Predisposition
  • Social Cleavage Model
  • Cleavages and Value Orientations
  • The Role of Occupation
  • New Politics - the Emergence of New Issues and Conflicts
  • Parties as Factors Influencing Structuration of Attitudes
  • Summary
  • Practice Questions
  • 22. Emotional Intelligence
  • Introduction
  • Intellectual Abilities
  • Moral Qualities
  • Emotional Intelligence
  • Brief Historical Background
  • Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
  • Seven Varieties of Intelligence
  • Emotional Intelligence
  • Gardener’s Summary
  • Emotional Intelligence Theory
  • Changes in Business Environment and Emotional Intelligence
  • Art of Criticism
  • Knowledge Workers and Work Teams
  • New Management Tools
  • Contents xix
  • Influencing People
  • Communicating
  • Conflict Management
  • Leadership
  • Programmes for Poor
  • Empathy
  • Conclusion
  • Summary
  • Practice Questions
  • 23. International Morality
  • Introduction
  • Sovereignty
  • Nation and State
  • International Morality
  • Topics Covered in this Chapter
  • Theories of IR
  • Realism
  • Idealism
  • E. H. Carr’s Challenge to Utopian Idealism
  • Hans Morgenthau’s Realist Principles
  • Neo-realism: Kenneth Waltz’s International System
  • Neoliberalism
  • Objections to Neorealism
  • Postmodernism
  • Feminism
  • Tenets of International Morality: UN Charter
  • John Rawls’s List of International Morals
  • Just War Theories
  • Jus AD Bellum
  • Jus In Bello
  • Jus Post Bellum
  • Coercive Regime Change
  • Pacifism
  • New Dimensions of International Morality
  • International Economic Equity: Promoting Equitable Development
  • Foreign Aid during the Cold War
  • xx Contents
  • Poverty Reduction and Recent Development Models
  • Millennium Development Goals
  • Moral Roots of India’s Foreign Policy
  • Cosmopolitanism in Morals
  • Intervention in Other Nations
  • Summary
  • Practice Questions
  • 24. Case Studies Introduction
  • Strategy for Solution of Case Studies
  • Two Types of Cases
  • Test of Ethical Soundness of an Action
  • Case Studies
  • 25. Glossary of Terms
  • Accountability
  • Accounts
  • Act Utilitarianism
  • Act Deontological Theories
  • Administrative Ethics
  • Administrative Ethos
  • Affective Component
  • Altruism
  • Ancient Greek moral Schools
  • Appetite
  • Aptitude: Nature and Measurement
  • Assessment of Intelligence
  • Attitudes
  • Audit
  • Audit Committee
  • Behavioural Component
  • ‘Benami’ Transactions
  • Benevolence
  • Bureaucratic Ethos
  • Canons of Financial Propriety
  • Cardinal Virtues
  • Contents xxi
  • Categorical Imperative
  • Character
  • Characteristics of Emotionally Intelligent Persons
  • Character or Virtues
  • Citizen’s Charters
  • Class Action
  • Classical Conditioning
  • Codes of Ethics
  • Cognitive Component
  • Cognitive Dissonance
  • Collusive Corruption
  • Commercial Audit
  • Communitarian Ethics
  • Committee on Public Undertakings (COPU)
  • Conduct
  • Conflict of Interest
  • Conflict Management
  • Conscience
  • Constitutional Protection to Civil Servants – Article 311
  • Conventional or Customary Morality
  • Corporate Governance
  • Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
  • Corruption
  • Deontology
  • Discretionary Decision-Making
  • Divisions of Ethics
  • Doctrine of Double Effects (DDE)
  • Duty, Obligation and ‘Ought To’
  • Egoistic Hedonism
  • Ego Defence Mechanisms
  • Emotional Intelligence
  • Additional Note
  • Emotional Literacy
  • Empathy
  • Ends and Means
  • Environmental Ethics
  • Ethical Dilemma
  • xxii Contents
  • Ethical Questions
  • Ethics
  • Estimates Committee
  • Eudemonia (or Eudaimonia)
  • False Claims Act
  • Feminism
  • Feminist Ethics
  • Functions of Attitudes
  • General Utilitarianism
  • Good
  • Grid-group Model
  • Group IQ
  • Hedonism
  • Hierarchical Model
  • Human desires
  • Human Responsibility
  • Ideology
  • Idealism
  • Individual Differences in Ideology
  • Independent Directors
  • Integrity
  • Integrity in Ethics
  • Integrity Pact
  • International Morality
  • Intuitionism
  • Judgement and Value
  • Knowledge Worker
  • Law and Ethics
  • Law and Morals
  • Learning Theory of Attitude Change
  • Marriage of Information and Predisposition
  • Model of Moral Decision-Making
  • Models of Reasoned Action
  • Moral Relativism
  • Moral Hazard
  • Moral Standards
  • Motive and Intention
  • Contents xxiii
  • Nation
  • National Financial Reporting Authority (NFRA)
  • Nature of Audit
  • New Politics - The Emergence of New Issues and Conflicts
  • Nolan Committee’s List of Values
  • Observational Learning
  • Ombudsman
  • Ontological Ethics
  • Operant Conditioning
  • Outputs and Outcomes
  • Pacifism
  • Panchsheel
  • Paradox of Hedonism
  • Performance Audit
  • Personality
  • Personality and Ideological Orientation
  • Personality-related Terms
  • Persuading People to Change Attitudes
  • Political Attitudes
  • Positive Thinking
  • Professional Codes of Conduct
  • Professional Ethics
  • Public Accounts Committee (PAC)
  • Public Sphere
  • Purpose
  • Realism
  • Regularity Audit (Financial)
  • Related Party Transactions
  • Right
  • Rule Deontological Theories
  • Rule Utilitarianism
  • Schools of Ethical Philosophy
  • Secretarial Audit
  • Self-Awareness
  • Self-Complexity
  • Self-Concept
  • Self-Realisation
  • xxiv Contents
  • Self-Regulation
  • Situation Ethics
  • Sleeper Effect
  • Social Audit
  • Social Cleavage Model
  • Soft Skills
  • Sovereignty
  • Standards or Norms
  • State
  • Strength of Attitudes
  • Summum Bonum
  • System of Human Values
  • Systemic Reforms
  • Teleological or End-based Ethics
  • Teleological Theories
  • The Freedom of The Will
  • The MODE Model
  • Intention and Behaviour
  • The Nine Types of Intelligence
  • The Principle of Beneficence
  • The Theory of Planned Behaviour
  • The Three Selves of Man
  • Transparency
  • Theory of Persuasion
  • Two Types of Moral Judgements
  • Two Types of Self Awareness
  • Universalistic Hedonism
  • UN Charter
  • Utilitarianism
  • Values
  • Vigilance
  • Virtue as a Golden Mean
  • Virtue Ethics or Character Ethics
  • Whistleblower
  • Widening The Definition of Corruption

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